Study: Melanoma rates drop sharply among teens, young adults

Cases of melanoma among U.S. adolescents and young adults declined markedly from 2006 to 2015—even as the skin cancer’s incidence continued to increase among older adults and the general population during the span, new research shows. The finding, based on national cancer-registry data, suggests that public-health efforts advocating sun protection are changing behaviors among Millennials and Post-Millennials, the investigators surmised. […]

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Scientists identify immune cells linked to malaria-induced anaemia through autoantibody production

An autoimmune attack on uninfected red blood cells likely contributes to anaemia—a shortage of red blood cells—in people with malaria, according to a new study published in eLife. Anaemia is a common and sometimes deadly complication of malaria infections. While the immune system must destroy red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite to clear the infection, the study suggests […]

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Study reveals ‘bug wars’ that take place in cystic fibrosis

Scientists have revealed how common respiratory bugs that cause serious infections in people with cystic fibrosis interact together, according to a new study in eLife. The results provide insights into how bacterial pathogens wrestle each other for territory that could open avenues for new antibacterial treatments. Studies of microbes from mouths, intestines, chronic wounds and chronic respiratory infections show that […]

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Chronic adversity dampens dopamine production

People exposed to a lifetime of psychosocial adversity may have an impaired ability to produce the dopamine levels needed for coping with acutely stressful situations. These findings, published today in eLife, may help explain why long-term exposure to psychological trauma and abuse increases the risk of mental illness and addiction. “We already know that chronic psychosocial adversity can induce vulnerability […]

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Scientists shed new light on neural processes behind learning and motor behaviours

Researchers have provided new insight into the neural processes behind movement and learning behaviours, according to a study published today in eLife. The findings in rats reveal how the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for processing information, affects the basal ganglia, which controls motor behaviours and reinforcement learning. This could pave the way to better understanding why certain symptoms occur […]

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How an Alzheimer’s-related protein forms plaques

Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease are characterised by aggregates of protein in the brain. The connection of these aggregates to the disease itself is unclear. Martina Huber, Enrico Zurlo and colleagues published a new method to monitor the formation of these aggregates. While they are clumping together, the proteins first form aggregates of several molecules, named oligomers. These may […]

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Weekend sudden cardiac arrests are more deadly

People who experience cardiac arrests over the weekend are less likely to survive long enough to be admitted to a hospital, compared to those who had the same medical event on a weekday, according to preliminary research to be presented at the American Heart Association’s Resuscitation Science Symposium 2019—November 16-17 in Philadelphia. U.K. researchers investigated “survival-to-hospital admission” for patients who […]

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Increase in physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis may lower risk of death

At least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, post diagnosis is associated with lower all-cause mortality among postmenopausal breast cancer patients, regardless of their levels of physical activity before diagnosis, according to a study published in the open access journal Breast Cancer Research. Although the benefits of pre- and post-diagnosis physical activity have been […]

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Why myelinated mammalian nerves are fast and allow high frequency

University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers, for the first time ever, have achieved patch-clamp studies of an elusive part of mammalian myelinated nerves called the Nodes of Ranvier. At the nodes, they found unexpected potassium channels that give the myelinated nerve the ability to propagate nerve impulses at very high frequencies and with high conduction speeds along the nerve. Both […]

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